What should we do for Winter precautions for patients with hypertension?


 by Anna Waldrop

An elevated blood pressure in a healthy person generally does not directly have serious consequences. However, patients with hypertension have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease or have already had cardiovascular disease. Therefore, blood pressure should be controlled smoothly during the cold season, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be controlled to minimize the risk of cardiovascular disease and death.

1. Monitor blood pressure and adjust antihypertensive drugs

cold can cause blood pressure to rise, so after the weather turns cold, the frequency of blood pressure measurement can be appropriately increased, and blood pressure values ​​are regularly recorded. If you find that your blood pressure is elevated, you should inform your doctor promptly. If necessary, follow the doctor's advice to adjust the type and amount of antihypertensive drugs. About one-third of hypertensive patients in winter need to increase antihypertensive drugs.

2. Keep warm

In the cold season, when exposed to -5 ° C for 5 minutes, the blood pressure can be increased by about 10 mmHg, but enough warm clothing can reduce the increase in blood pressure. Therefore, when you are exposed to outdoor low temperatures, you must first pay attention to keep warm.

The sensitivity of the cold in different parts of the body is also different, the difference can be more than 100 times, wherein the face is the most sensitive and the limbs are the least sensitive. Therefore, when wearing the same number of underwear, you can add a hat, which can lower the blood pressure, and the speed of blood pressure will return to normal after returning to a warm environment [5].

Secondly, when the body is at the same temperature, lowering the temperature of the inhaled air will also increase blood pressure and heart rate, increase cardiac workload and reduce myocardial blood supply, which may lead to imbalance of supply and demand and induce heart disease [6]. Therefore, when going out in winter, not only to ensure the body warmth, but also to protect the nose and nose from cold stimulation.

In addition, in winter, it is necessary to maintain a stable and suitable indoor temperature to reduce the cold-induced increase in blood pressure, thereby reducing the onset of cardiovascular disease.

What should we do for Winter precautions for patients with hypertension

3. Adhere to the right amount of physical activity

physical activity can promote vasodilation and increase blood flow. Reduced physical activity in winter increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is necessary to pay attention to the time when going out in the cold weather, and try to avoid going out in the early morning. On the one hand, because low temperature may induce cardiovascular disease, on the other hand, because most people have higher blood pressure than other times in the morning, the nervous system is more excited, and cardiovascular accidents are more likely to occur.

Therefore, winter should adhere to the right amount of physical activity, moderate intensity [heart rate = (220 - age, times / minutes) × (60% -70%)] exercise 4-7 times a week, each time 30-60 minutes, aerobic exercise Mainly (walking, jogging, cycling and swimming, etc.), anaerobic exercise as a supplement [7]. When going out for exercise, it is safer to go out and keep warm when the temperature rises.

What should we do for Winter precautions for patients with hypertension?

4. Maintain good eating habits

Northerners have the idea of ​​sticking to autumn, and people's appetite is better than summer in autumn and winter. They are used to eating more fat foods. This will lead to higher blood cholesterol levels in winter than in summer, and promote the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, the increase in foods with high sodium content such as salted products in the winter, as well as the consumption of potassium-rich foods such as fresh vegetables, will also increase blood pressure. In addition, under the influence of diet and physical activity, most people will gain weight in winter, and a slight increase in weight can significantly increase blood pressure [8].

Therefore, we must maintain good eating habits in winter, reduce the use of salt and other sodium-containing condiments during cooking (salt <6 g), and try to avoid or reduce processed foods with high sodium content, such as pickles, ham, and various types. Roasted roasted seeds and pickled products. It is recommended to increase the intake of potassium-rich foods (fresh vegetables, fruits and beans) and reduce the intake of sugary drinks, red meat, and foods containing more saturated fats and cholesterol.

It is recommended not to drink alcohol. If you have to drink alcohol, the daily alcohol intake should not exceed 25 grams for men and 15 grams for women. At the same time, the body mass index (square of height and height) is maintained at 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, the waist circumference male should be less than 90 cm, and the female should be less than 85 cm [7].

What should we do for Winter precautions for patients with hypertension?

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